Introduction To The Composition Structure And Development Of Automatic Fire Alarm System

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With the development of my country's modernization construction, the construction of various types of industrial buildings is accelerating. During the construction process, people pay more and more attention to fire prevention in particular. In recent years, the National Fire Protection Law has promulgated and implemented relevant laws and regulations, and the fire prevention in engineering construction has been raised to the height of the law. The principle of "combining fire prevention and fire prevention, and giving priority to prevention" for the fire protection system also indicates that the automatic fire alarm system will play a more important role. The automatic fire alarm system is to allow people to detect the fire early and take effective measures in time to control and extinguish the fire, and an automatic fire-fighting facility installed in buildings or other places is a powerful tool for people to fight against the fire. The automatic fire alarm system can convert physical quantities such as smoke, heat and light radiation generated by combustion into electrical signals through fire detectors such as temperature, smoke and photosensitive in the early stage of a fire, and transmit them to the fire alarm controller, and at the same time display the fire alarm. Where the fire occurred, record the time when the fire occurred.

intelligent fire alarm system

Development stage

 The composition of automatic fire alarm system is varied, and its development can be divided into three stages at present:


1. Multi-wire switch type fire detection and alarm system

    This is the first-generation product, and it has basically been eliminated except for the production of very few domestic manufacturers.


2. Bus system addressable switch quantity fire detection and alarm system

    This is the second generation of products, especially the bus system switch detection and alarm system is currently being used in large numbers.


3. Analog transmission type intelligent fire alarm system

This is the third generation product. At present, my country has begun to enter a new stage of advanced analog intelligent fire detection and alarm technology from the traditional switch-type fire detection and alarm technology. The false alarm rate of its system has been reduced to a minimum and greatly improved. the accuracy and reliability of the alarm. At present, automatic fire alarm systems include intelligent, full-bus, and integrated types. These systems are not divided into regional alarm systems or centralized alarm systems, and can monitor the entire automatic fire alarm system. But in the current practical projects, the traditional regional alarm system, centralized alarm system and control center alarm system are still widely used. The detector installed in the protected area continuously sends out inspection signals to the monitored site, monitors the smoke concentration, temperature, etc. on the site, and continuously feeds back to the alarm controller. The controller compares the received signal with the normal setting value of the memory , to determine the fire. When a fire occurs, sound and light alarms are issued, the address code of the fire area or floor room number is displayed, and the alarm time and address are printed. At the same time, an alarm bell is issued to the fire scene, and an alarm signal is also issued on the adjacent floors above and below the fire occurrence floor or adjacent areas of the fire area to display the fire area.


The composition of the structure

    An automatic fire alarm system is a fire alarm system composed of a trigger device, a fire alarm device, a fire alarm device and devices with other auxiliary functions. In an automatic fire alarm system, the device that automatically or manually generates a fire alarm signal is called a trigger. It mainly includes fire detectors and manual fire alarm buttons.


1. Fire detector

    The fire detector is the sensing part of the automatic fire alarm system, an important component of various automatic fire alarm systems, and the "sensory organ" of the automatic fire alarm system. It can respond to fire parameters ( such as smoke, temperature, flame radiation, gas concentration, etc. ) , and automatically generate fire alarm signals, or send out on-site fire status signals to control and indicating equipment. The fire detector is a key component in the system, and its technical indicators such as stability, reliability and sensitivity will be affected by many factors. Therefore, the selection and arrangement of fire detectors should be carried out in strict accordance with the specifications.


2. Manual fire alarm button

    The automatic fire alarm system shall have both automatic and manual triggering devices. Various types of fire detectors are automatic triggering devices, and the manual fire alarm buttons set at evacuation passages, staircase entrances, etc. in the fire compartment are manual triggering devices, which should have the function of manually reporting fire alarms in emergency situations.

intelligent fire alarm system

3. Fire alarm controller

    The fire alarm controller is the heart of the automatic fire alarm system and has the following functions:

    (1) Used to receive fire signals and activate fire alarm devices. The device can also be used to indicate the location of the fire and to record relevant information.

    (2) The fire alarm signal can be activated through the fire alarm sending device or the automatic fire extinguishing equipment and the fire linkage controller can be activated through the automatic fire extinguishing control device.

    (3) Automatically monitor the correct operation of the system and give sound and light alarms for specific faults.


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